I Won Over One Hundred Million Dollars

Today alone my net worth is over One Hundred Million Dollars and it only cost me a mere $180 plus some very personal information, Social Security number, bank account numbers for transfer, credit card info, address and billing questions. Well worth it. I would imagine that this is a numbers game – out of every ten thousand emails they send out at least one will fall for this. The elderly are also very prone and seem easy targets, actually someone I know fell for a very official email from medical group threatening to go to collections if the bill was not paid. The amount was small, I think it was $85 and some change. They sent the money in because they were worried about it.  Imagine if 1000 people sent the invoice in…that’s a very good source of income for the scammers. My point is we as the sons and daughters need to watch out for our aging parents that could fall prey.

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Re.Important Message.

FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION <elhoussine.elkarmy@neuf.fr>

May 17, 2016, 5:43 PM

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)

Anti-Terrorist And Monitory Crime Division.

Federal Bureau Of Investigation.

J.Edgar.Hoover Building Washington Dc

Customers Service Hours / Monday To Saturday

Office Hours Monday To Saturday:

Dear Beneficiary,

Series of meetings have been held over the past 7 months with the secretary general of the United Nations Organization. This ended 3 days ago. It is obvious that you have not received your fund which is to the tune of $16.5million due to past corrupt Governmental Officials who almost held the fund to themselves for their selfish reason and some individuals who have taken advantage of your fund all in an attempt to swindle your fund which has led to so many losses from your end and unnecessary delay in the receipt of your fund.for more information do get back to us.

The National Central Bureau of Interpol enhanced by the United Nations and Federal Bureau of Investigation have successfully passed a mandate to the current Prime Minister of Cambodia Excellency Hun Sen to boost the exercise of clearing all foreign debts owed to you and other individuals and organizations who have been found not to have receive their Contract Sum, Lottery/Gambling, Inheritance and the likes. Now how would you like to receive your payment? because we have two method of  payment which is by Check or by ATM card?

ATM Card: We will be issuing you a custom pin based ATM card which you will use to withdraw up to $5,000 per day from any ATM machine that has the Master Card Logo on it and the card have to be renewed in 4 years time which is 2020. Also with the ATM card you will be able to transfer your funds to your local bank account. The ATM card comes with a handbook or manual to enlighten you about how to use it. Even if you do not have a bank account.

Check: To be deposited in your bank for it to be cleared within three working days. Your payment would be sent to you via any of your preferred option and would be mailed to you via FedEx. Because we have signed a contract with FedEx which should expire 20th of May  2016 you will only need to pay $180 instead of $420 saving you $240 so if you

Pay before the one week you save $240 note that any one asking you for some kind of money above the usual fee is definitely a fraudsters and you will have to stop communication with every other person if you have been in contact with any. Also remember that all you will ever have to spend is $180.00 nothing more! Nothing less! And we guarantee the receipt of your fund to be successfully delivered to you within the next 24hrs after the receipt of payment has been confirmed.

Note: Everything has been taken care of by the Government of Cambodia,The United Nation and also the FBI and including taxes, custom paper and clearance duty so all you will ever need to pay is $180.

DO NOT SEND MONEY TO ANYONE UNTIL YOU READ THIS: The actual fees for shipping your ATM card is $420 but because FedEx have temporarily discontinued the C.O.D which gives you the chance to pay when package is delivered for international shipping We had to sign contract with them for bulk shipping which makes the fees reduce from the actual fee of $420 to $180 nothing more and no hidden fees of any sort!To effect the release of your fund valued at $16.5million you are advised to contact our correspondent in Asia the delivery officer Miss.Chi Liko with the information below,


Email: chiliko7@e-mail.ua

You are adviced to contact her with the informations as stated below:

Your full Name..

Your Address:…………..

Home/Cell Phone:…………..

Preferred Payment Method ( ATM / Cashier Check )

Upon receipt of payment the delivery officer will ensure that your package is sent within 24 working hours. Because we are so sure of everything we are giving you a 100% money back guarantee if you do not receive payment/package within the next 24hrs after you have made the payment for shipping.

Yours sincerely,

Miss Donna Story





Dear Customer,

Attn: The sum of $43,015.00 was remitted to your account.

Customer Reference             : 2016040100070794

Transaction Method              : [Telegraphic Transfer]

Transaction Amount              : USD43,015.00

Value Date                           : 23rd, April 2016

Click HERE to see full bank account statement.

Yours faithfully,

The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited




My Name is Mr. Richard Mavin, am working with Financial Service Authority

Accara Ghana. I know that this letter will come to you as a surprise

because we have not met before.

However, I have an outstanding fund worth of Fifty Five Million, Seven

Hundred Thousand United States Dollars (US$55.7million Dollars) which is

to be remitted to your country. 50% of this fund will be given to you for

your assistance in receiving the money on my behalf. More Information

regarding this business will be given to you immediately I received your

acceptance to receive this money in your country for an investment on

estate properties. I anticipate your immediate response and cooperation to

enable us work out success of this transaction.

Have a nice day and God bless. Anticipating your communication


Richard Mavin

E-mail: private.mavin@gmail.com


Attention: Beneficiary


We are not sure you received our previous message but we wish to us this medium to officially inform you that following the ongoing review of all unclaimed and delayed funds by the United Nations and the World Bank, your payment file was forwarded to our office for immediate payment of your long delayed funds starting with a first transfer of US$10,000,000.00 with reference No. NG/FM14FGN, to your bank account.

However, we are surprised to receive another application this morning from your representative, MR.KRAUS MULLER,stating that you authorized him to transfer the funds to another bank account in Germany and that you were recently involved in an auto accident and cannot walk right now.


Could you please confirm immediately, your relationship with MR.KRAUS MULLER and also, confirm if the bank account in Germany as shown below is now your new bank account information to receive your funds this week from our paying bank


ACCOUNT NO: 098-11180933-109

IBAN: CH55 0910 3045 6011 91110 0


Kindly get in touch with us today by email with your telephone number to confirm this information to avoid wrong transfer of your funds, so that we can proceed with the transfer of the US$10,000,000.00 to your correct bank account as scheduled.

Yours sincerely,


Director,Anti-Fraud Unit.

Financial Services Regulation Committee

Plot 33,ATB Way Cadastral Zone,Abuja,NG


U.S. Department of the Treasury

1500 Pennsylvania Avenue,NW

Washington,DC 20220

This is to bring to your notice that the US Department of the Treasury in affiliation with the Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”) has been authorized in their Sanction Programs to compensate 1,000 scam victims who has being a victim of internet scam.The US Department of the Treasury has decided to pay you $250,000.00 USD(Two Hundred and Fifty Thousand United States Dollars) each in order to restore the global economy to the enviable standard of respectability.

Your particulars was mentioned by one of the syndicates who was arrested as one of the victims of their operations.You are hereby warned not to communicate or duplicate this message to him or her for any reason whatsoever as the US SECRET SERVICE is already on trace of the other criminals,these information should remain confidential till they are all apprehended,other victims who have not been contacted can submit their application as well for scrutiny and possible consideration.

Your fund to be released via MasterCard ATM in act to uphold the rule of law which we represent. once your fund is release with all the listed document from your processing officer, all you need do is get your INSURANCE BOND CERTIFICATE it will be needed in your name to complete your papers and secure your shipment safely in next 24hrs. the courier will send your tracking number immediately you get this said Approval. sincerely this will cost you $200usd only as we have spooked personally with the director in charge in your behalf.

You will be contacting Richard Berner directly by replying to this email for the release of your $250,000.00 USD compensation fund,he’s the director of the Office of Financial Research (OFR).You are also advised to provide him with the under listed Assignment information for verification:

Office Of Financial Research (OFR)


1)Full Names.

2) Home Address.

3) Nationality:

4) Age.

5) Sex.

6)  Occupation.

7)  Phone Number.

8) Identity Card.

9)Preferred Payment Method (ATM)

Best Regards,

Jacob J. Lew

Secretary of the Treasury.

Thank You



I am writing from the “Kuwait Finance and Investment Company, a premier financial and investment company here in Kuwait and the GCC Region.

I am a financial consultant to an investor from a Mineral-Oil Rich African Country with sensitive political background who wants to invest outside his country and without the appearance of him on the investments.

As stated above, my client had approached me with a mandate to seek for individuals with professional experience in financial management that can help him channel some funds into profitable investments outside Africa where these funds could exist WITHOUT his name.

Should this be of interest to you, kindly respond with your CV and/or personal profile so we can make progress.


Moataz Hegab http://www.kfic-kw.com

Attention Bonafide Recipient.

This is an official message from the courier services in Cotonou Republic of Benin. We have your package dropped since last six weeks by rev. Victor Akagwu who abandoned this package here for a trip to Vatican city in Italy.

We have made several attempts to have you clear your package containing a Bank Draft worth of US$2.5M not until rev. Victor Akagwu called us from Vatican and gave us you email, that is why we are contacting you to clear your package

Contact us with your final delivery address and have your package in less than 48 hours. Required delivery details is as below:

Your Full Names



Awaiting your immediate cooperation.

Mrs. Rachel Dean

My Dear Friend,

My Name is Arkamani Ahmad al-Mahdi,a descendant of (Muhammad Ahmad al-Mahdi) the ruler of Sudan in the 1880’s, I am 62years old and an ex-politician in Sudan, I retired from Politics more than a decade Ago.

I am presenting an investment proposal to you, with an amount of Eighty five Million United states Dollars ($85,000,000) for a start, and could go up to $10 billion and more, if you re trust worthy and capable enough as this is no joke.

I am open to any good, vast or profitable Ideas you have, so we could invest this sum of money, In the process of this establishment, you will be talking to my Son who will put you through all the Corners of this establishment, for some personal and security reasons I will explain to you later on, only if I see you as an interested partner.

I want us to make this 100% Confidential between us as I have tried to stay out of the Media and the public all along. I am ready to work with you in all trust and Honesty, as I Expect you will act the Same. There are lots of internet Fraud and Scam everywhere these days and as much as I am being Skeptical about you, I also want to give this a try, under my strict supervision, so I want you to know that we will not only rely on just phone and email Conversation for this business partnership. I want us to have a face to face Meeting either with me or my Son, which will enable us move in the right direction, if you Agree with me.

I will write you with every other details you need, when I get your response. Have a nice day as I await your message at your earliest convenience.

Write me on my private Email: arkamanidsk@gmail.com

Warm Regards,

Mr. Arkamani.


Just Rants

Donald Trump Also Can’t Stand The Steve Bannon Impression On ‘SNL

I’m just about ready for this second debate, although not without trepidation. The RNC and America’s top Republicans urged Trump to demonstrate contrition. His supporters, we hear, encouraged him to double down on his misogyny and lack of character by using Bill Clinton’s alleged misdeeds to de-emphasize the seriousness of his own. Clearly, he has listened to his supporters. I can’t imagine how Priebus, Ryan, and Pence will react tomorrow.

Donald’s answer to the tax question is to eliminate the provision for carried interest. That is to say, the general partner of a limited partnership has their income taxed as capital gains, even though they haven’t actually invested their own money. That’s the only provision he references – not the income tax rate – not the special deals for the real estate industry – not the inheritance tax deals. In point of fact, Trump uses business losses to fund deals in which he insists on getting paid up front – so the losses come from his partners, while he makes both money and a tax benefit. It’s the longest con imaginable.

Donald Trump is an idiot. How the American public can reconcile their support for this man and still consider their conscience clean and leaning towards a religious nature to be true is a stain upon their souls.

He lies so often, and defiles the higher nature of every person willing to stand by him.

That’s okay DT, not many folks like your impression of a President.

The EPA was just directed to freeze all grants. This means that graduate students and researchers funded on EPA funds are now without funds. All ongoing studies are stopped.
Scientists at the EPA and USDA are also blocked from communicating with the press or through the internet.
It all happened in a moment with a memo, by executive action, with zero input or oversight.
It could happen to any Federal institute, including the National Science Foundation, which funds research at universities around the country — including the health insurance and living stipends of many, many students. Trump also froze all federal hiring yesterday.
Please, if you can safely raise your voice, raise it loudly. Call your congresspeople, call the White House, write op-eds and articles and blog posts. AND TWEET This is only Day 4.
(Share widely– copy and paste is best to share with people outside our common friends. I did not write this. It was copied and pasted from a scientist who wants to remain anonymous. The fear of retaliation is real.)

Damage to American Democracy by Trump

(AND IT’S ONLY NOON, people)
* On January 19th, 2017, DT said that he would cut funding for the DOJ’s Violence Against Women programs.
* On January 19th, 2017, DT said that he would cut funding for the National Endowment for the Arts.
* On January 19th, 2017, DT said that he would cut funding for the National Endowment for the Humanities.
* On January 19th, 2017, DT said that he would cut funding for the Corporation for Public Broadcasting.
* On January 19th, 2017, DT said that he would cut funding for the Minority Business Development Agency.
* On January 19th, 2017, DT said that he would cut funding for the Economic Development Administration.
* On January 19th, 2017, DT said that he would cut funding for the International Trade Administration.
* On January 19th, 2017, DT said that he would cut funding for the Manufacturing Extension Partnership.
* On January 19th, 2017, DT said that he would cut funding for the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.
* On January 19th, 2017, DT said that he would cut funding for the Legal Services Corporation.
* On January 19th, 2017, DT said that he would cut funding for the Civil Rights Division of the DOJ.
* On January 19th, 2017, DT said that he would cut funding for the Environmental and Natural Resources Division of the DOJ.
* On January 19th, 2017, DT said that he would cut funding for the Overseas Private Investment Corporation.
* On January 19th, 2017, DT said that he would cut funding for the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
* On January 19th, 2017, DT said that he would cut funding for the Office of Electricity Deliverability and Energy Reliability.
* On January 19th, 2017, DT said that he would cut funding for the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.
* On January 19th, 2017, DT said that he would cut funding for the Office of Fossil Energy.
* On January 20th, 2017, DT ordered all regulatory powers of all federal agencies frozen.
* On January 20th, 2017, DT ordered the National Parks Service to stop using social media after RTing factual, side by side photos of the crowds for the 2009 and 2017 inaugurations.
* On January 20th, 2017, roughly 230 protestors were arrested in DC and face unprecedented felony riot charges. Among them were legal observers, journalists, and medics.
* On January 20th, 2017, a member of the International Workers of the World was shot in the stomach at an anti-fascist protest in Seattle. He remains in critical condition.
* On January 21st, 2017, DT brought a group of 40 cheerleaders to a meeting with the CIA to cheer for him during a speech that consisted almost entirely of framing himself as the victim of dishonest press.
* On January 21st, 2017, White House Press Secretary Sean Spicer held a press conference largely to attack the press for accurately reporting the size of attendance at the inaugural festivities, saying that the inauguration had the largest audience of any in history, “period.”
* On January 22nd, 2017, White House advisor Kellyanne Conway defended Spicer’s lies as “alternative facts” on national television news.
* On January 22nd, 2017, DT appeared to blow a kiss to director James Comey during a meeting with the FBI, and then opened his arms in a gesture of strange, paternal affection, before hugging him with a pat on the back.
* On January 23rd, 2017, DT reinstated the global gag order, which defunds international organizations that even mention abortion as a medical option.
* On January 23rd, 2017, Spicer said that the US will not tolerate China’s expansion onto islands in the South China Sea, essentially threatening war with China.
* On January 23rd, 2017, DT repeated the lie that 3-5 million people voted “illegally” thus costing him the popular vote.
* On January 23rd, 2017, it was announced that the man who shot the anti-fascist protester in Seattle was released without charges, despite turning himself in.
* On January 24th, 2017, Spicer reiterated the lie that 3-5 million people voted “illegally” thus costing DT the popular vote.
* On January 24th, 2017, DT tweeted a picture from his personal Twitter account of a photo he says depicts the crowd at his inauguration and will hang in the White House press room. The photo is of the 2009 inauguration of 44th President Barack Obama, and is curiously dated January 21st, 2017, the day AFTER the inauguration and the day of the Women’s March, the largest inauguration related protest in history.
* On January 24th, 2017, the EPA was ordered to stop communicating with the public through social media or the press and to freeze all grants and contracts.
* On January 24th, 2017, the USDA was ordered to stop communicating with the public through social media or the press and to stop publishing any papers or research. All communication with the press would also have to be authorized and vetted by the White House.
* On January 24th, 2017, HR7, a bill that would prohibit federal funding not only to abortion service providers, but to any insurance coverage, including Medicaid, that provides abortion coverage, went to the floor of the House for a vote.
* On January 24th, 2017, Director of the Department of Health and Human Service nominee Tom Price characterized federal guidelines on transgender equality as “absurd.”
* On January 24th, 2017, DT ordered the resumption of construction on the Dakota Access Pipeline, while the North Dakota state congress considers a bill that would legalize hitting and killing protestors with cars if they are on roadways.
* On January 24th, 2017, it was discovered that police officers had used confiscated cell phones to search the emails and messages of the 230 demonstrators now facing felony riot charges for protesting on January 20th, including lawyers and journalists whose email accounts contain privileged information of clients and sources. (from a friend)

Please share… If you want more people to actually read it, copy and paste. I still can’t believe what is on this list. Thank you for reading… It is long but important…

Defining Trump Presidency – Tyrant

A tyrant, in its modern English usage, is an absolute ruler unrestrained by law or person, or one who has usurped legitimate sovereignty. Often described as a cruel character, a tyrant defends his position by oppressive means, tending to control almost everything in the state. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tyrant

Dumb Coal Miners Will Lose Obamacare Benefits

01/04/2017 – Who ever said coal miners are smart…dah, they voted for Trump with the promise of coal mining jobs but didn’t think it through. Currently, black lung benefits exist via Obamacare, but with the repeal of the insurance plan, coal miners will loose all benefits. By the way, coal is dead and should be phased out like most civilized countries have done or will be doing in the very near future. Washington Pos

Drain the swamp” was a refrain of Donald Trump during the presidential campaign, but Newt Gingrich says the president-elect “doesn’t want to use it anymore” now that he’s knee-deep in alligators.

Donald Trump the Con Man

Donald’s answer to the tax question is to eliminate the provision for carried interest. That is to say, the general partner of a limited partnership has their income taxed as capital gains, even though they haven’t actually invested their own money. That’s the only provision he references – not the income tax rate – not the special deals for the real estate industry – not the inheritance tax deals.. In point of fact, Trump uses business losses to fund deals in which he insists on getting paid up front – so the losses come from his partners, while he makes both money and a tax benefit. It’s the longest con imaginable.

Donald Trump is an idiot. How the American public can reconcile their support for this man and still consider their conscience clean and leaning towards a religious nature to be true is a stain upon their souls.

He lies so frequently and defiles the higher nature of every person willing to stand by him.

Caution Idiot Ahead I-95 Observation

Consistently traveling the I-95 corridor, a stretch of highway that spans from Maine to the Florida Keys and is always busy. The part that seems to have the most idiots is located in Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey where the traffic is the heaviest. The thing about it is, if people would just drive instead of texting or talking on the phone, traffic jams, accidents, and stupidities could be drastically reduced. We would only have to deal with those moronic rubberneckers that slow traffic down for miles just to take a peak at some blood and guts on the road, get a life and drive. Just hate that, traffic is backed up for miles and when you finally get to the accident its free and clear, rubberneckers should be ticketed and fined.[su_divider style=”dotted”][su_divider][/su_divider]

Took this photograph while the traffic was dead still and it reads ” accident ahead” which translates to “Caution Idiot Ahead” which I thought was more appropriate.  Anyway, that is my rant for the new year. Have a perfect and stay safe.

The original image was manipulated with an Android phone then fine tuned with Photoshop.

2016 New Years Resolutions

Having decided to get a jump on 2016, I created a Mind Map of some of the things I would like to accomplish and correct with my life. The 2016 New Years resolutions goal is simple, make it much more interesting and full of new friends, situations, and stories. Most of us become complacent with our lives and fall into routines that slowly fill us with regrets, wake up, go to work, get paid, maybe have one day off to do errands. Complaining about the daily grime doesn’t change it…change comes by action and risk. The Mind Map of 2016 will actually be my road map of life. (Yes, very cliche…but true)

2016 New Years Resolutions

When creating your resolutions try to keep it realistic…keep the goals attainable. You can always modify and add more later. For now enjoy the holiday’s and Have a Fantastic New Year. I have included the link to the app that I think is the best for creating mind maps.

[su_youtube_advanced url=”https://youtu.be/usNsCeOV4GM” width=”200″ height=”200″ rel=”no” theme=”light”]These[/su_youtube_advanced]

What is Mind Mapping?

[su_note note_color=”#f6f6be”]Currently find that the Simple Mind App is the best for creating mind maps. I use it for projects, creating a visual resume, and business planning. SimpleMind™ is a mind mapping tool that turns your computer, tablet or phone into a brainstorming, idea collection and thought structuring device. SimpleMind is world leader in mobile mind mapping and and is available for Android™, iPad™ and iPhone™, Mac™ and Windows™.[/su_note]

[su_note note_color=”#f6f6be”]Some additional great 2016 New Year Resolutions that just make sense and most are very attainable goals.Please leave your resolution ideas in the comment area below, would love to her your ideas.  Happy New Year… 50 New Year’s Resolution Ideas And How To Achieve Each Of Them[/su_note]




Image Restoration Old Photograph

The original image was in very poor condition with peeling, fading, and the beginning signs of mildew. The image restoration took about an hour to complete. Using Photoshop I saved a copy thus retaining the original image, just in case the process was unsuccessful and needed to revert back. The original resolution was also very low, coming in at a whopping 667×439 which is really not well suited for print. Besides the image restoration for preservation, I wanted to actually have it printed and framed. The photograph is of my father in the UK in his early twenties, having a moment with the family pet.

The Image Restoration Process

Working on the image in its original dimension and zooming into the area that I wanted to focus on was the logical starting point as opposed to increasing resolution first. Using the clone tool I went around the image and removed small blemishes and spots were a distraction. Cleaning and blending one pixel at a time with special focus on his main body. The main goal was not to make it absolutely perfect and spotless as if it was just taken. I wanted to retain the patina or vintage feel of the image by keeping some of the few minor cracks and slight imperfections.

The next step was to add some depth to the image by having more contrast and a bit more detail. Using the burn and dodge tools and some finesse with the mouse, the details were carefully blended. The next step was to add a very slight sharpening filter on the entire image Once again, I did not want a super sharp crisp image and opted to retain the natural soft focus. Satisfied it was time to work on image size and color.

Image Sizing & Color Saturation

Playing around with the color balance, saturation, and levels the conversion from a faded red to a true black and white was complete. Just to keep it a bit more with the image, I decided to add a slight vignette around the print to diffuse some of the ground shadows and direct the eye to the center of the image. The final image comes in at 300 dpi at 1578×1052 which is okay for a simple 4×6 print. Since I was working from a scan from 15 years ago when image resolution was horrific I couldn’t increase the size more than these dimensions. The original image if scanned by modern day scanners would have yielded much better results. Considering about an hour was used for the image restoration the results are like night and day. Very pleased. Let me know your thoughts…[su_divider style=”dotted”]

What is image restoration? Wikipedia Article

To Whom It May Concern

To Whom It May Concern:

We could not ask for better neighbors, Kasia and Nicolas. We have been friends the first time that we met three years ago. The two of them and there dog Chloe have become very good friends of ours. Nicolas now works with me at the Hospital. Kasia and me share conversation and recipes, since we both love cooking. Nicolas and Vasco enjoy working on their cars which always seem to be broken.

During the summer all the neighbors share time together in the backyard cookouts, with music and fun. Kasia and Nicolas are always in the middle, always want to help cleaning up or preparing food.

We both love Kasia and Nicolas, they are both very loving and caring couple and only wish them both well.


Mr. & Mrs. R

The Evolution of Slavery

From the original settlements in the Americas through the American Revolution, the institution of slavery evolved into the system we remember it as today. The myth is a Gone With The Wind plantation where blacks and whites coexisted as one big family, and the black slaves were part of the household. The reality is a system that evolved out of economical necessity, where black slaves were considered a cheap, plentiful alternative to hired workers or indentured servants. The original Spanish settlements provided a basis from which slave labor grew. The fertile farmlands created a demand for workers, and the Portuguese slave trade in Africa provided the supply. English settlers in the Americas, eventually unable to attain workers for their crops, turned to black slavery as the only way to get cheap labor in a relatively unpopulated land. At that point, slavery became the acceptable labor force for the original thirteen English colonies in North America, and it stayed that way until the end of the American Revolution. Then, for the first time, slavery abolitionists appeared in the north. But even so, the slave trade, and the number of people dependent on slaves for their livelihood, had grown too large and too profitable to come to an end.

The first European settlers in the Americas, the Spanish, settled mostly in South America and the Caribbean islands. They found fertile land in the New World and planted tobacco and sugar cane crops for trade with Europe. The crops flourished and there was an ample market for both tobacco and sugar that created a demand for what the Spanish settlers could provide. At first, in order to meet these demands, the Spanish enslaved the Indians, whose land they had settled on, and had a sufficient work force to maintain their new international market. However, the Indians weren’t immune to European diseases and eventually many of them died. Others were driven out of their native lands. The Indian labor supply began running out and the Spanish were forced to look for another kind of labor force to farm for them, since they had become so dependent on their crops for money. During this time, the Portuguese, who had settled along the coast of Africa, began shipping African blacks to the Americas. Crops in the New World were becoming so important to Europeans as a source of wealth that the slave trade became a very profitable business.  England, Portugal, and the Dutch all fought over who would gain control of the trade. England won this war and began exporting slaves to its colonies settled in North America.

At this time, the North American colonies were expanding, and English settlers began to realize how to use the new land. There was a lack of suitable farmland in the north, but the middle and southern colonies found that crops such as wheat, corn, tobacco, and indigo grew well in those regions. Since a strong European market was open for these crops, the demand for American produce grew. The colonists needed a work force capable of supplying enough labor to satisfy the market that their own population couldn’t provide. The workers they had were mostly poor people who had immigrated to the New World, often selling their time and labor in exchange for ship passage. These immigrants were granted contracts and became indentured servants and, for a time, supplied the labor needed to maintain the growing farms. Black slaves imported into the English colonies were also considered indentured servants for a time, but white servants were valued more highly. At the time, black slaves cost five times as much as white workers and were harder to obtain. During the 1600’s though, the flow of indentured servants began to taper off, due to improved economic conditions in England, and American colonists were forced to compete for their services. Then, in 1672, the Royal African Company formed and began shipping larger numbers of black slaves to the Americas. Indentured servants eventually gave way to the more readily available, and plentiful, slaves from Africa.

Colonists began to realize the benefits of purchasing black slaves. Since these slaves had no contracts, as the indentured servants did, they were entitled to no legal protection. Soon, their masters were able to hold them for unlimited periods of time, with no monetary compensation for their services. At the same time, the English realized they could exploit the Africans’ abilities to work on the land.  Black slaves were more suited than Europeans to hard manual labor in an intemperate climate. Their agricultural knowledge was more extensive, and they were more proficient at hunting game. As they became more acculturated to the English colonies, they learned trades: they were cooks, field workers, blacksmiths, and became all the more valuable for that. The colonists became more dependent on their slaves to provide a solid, knowledgeable, and ultimately inexpensive work force.

Slaves were also becoming more plentiful.  In addition to the growing slave trade, the overall death rate in the thirteen colonies was decreasing. More blacks were born in America, and they were born into slavery. These later generations were learning European customs, often being converted into Christianity, and their understanding of the Bible led to a desire to be able to read it.  Slaves were able to understand their masters better in these later generations, and could find their masters’ weak spots and exploit them. They learned that running away served not only as a chance for freedom, but as a way to deprive their owners of valuable labor. In short, slaves were becoming harder to control and their white masters lived in fear of rebellions. In 1740, South Carolina passed a Negro Act denying slaves any freedom of movement, freedom of assembly, freedom to raise their own food, earn money, or read English. They were denied civil rights and were punished severely for disregarding the laws that restricted them.

The slavery institution in North America continued undisturbed until the onset of the American Revolution in 1775.  During this war, England promised to set free all slaves willing to bear arms against the American insurrection. In reality, they ended up being treated as captured property by the British. Some ran into Canada and were freed, others ended up as slaves in the British West Indies colonies. The majority remained in America as slaves. After America achieved its independence from Britain in 1778, the states began to be divided in their attitudes towards slavery. By the 1780’s, the New England states had abolished slavery. The slave trade there had never really been essential, since their economy leaned towards the fishing industry and skilled trades, and slaves in that area were used mostly as domestic servants. The economy in the middle states was also capable of surviving without slave labor, depending more on the fishing industry and iron production than on farming. The Southern states, however, did rely on slaves for their wealth.  They had no other industry than farming and were unwilling to abolish slavery, since it meant giving up their sole work force.  When the Constitution was ratified in the 1780’s, the states did agree, at least, to abolish the importation of more slaves into North America.

By the end of the American Revolution, slavery had evolved from a rudimentary and experimental work force into a necessary and profitable enterprise. Although it was not truly necessary in the northern and middle states, and did not endure there, this was not only because of the moral implications of slavery. Rather, it simply wasn’t an economic necessity in these areas. These states, in fact, had fishing industries and skilled trades to rely on for their economy. The south was more conducive to farming, and wealthy farms and plantations dominated over all other industries. Here, slavery was both necessary and enduring. The slave trade evolved into a huge enterprise because of the demand for sugar, rice, tobacco, indigo: things the New World could produce for the European market. The demand for these products created a demand for labor to provide supplies for that market. And so a cycle was created and continued to perpetuate itself from the early 1600’s well through the 1800’s, when the moral implications of slavery became more important than the work slave labor could provide.

Horrible Darien Ct Boat Attack

I shot a series of this man kayaking, just kept on firing the camera shutter. When view quickly looks as if the fishing boat is eating up the small craft. My only manipulation was to remove some of the color to beam more light on the main subject. Really like the composition of this photograph. Darien, Ct is packed with history and small locations for the perfect shot. Let me know what you think.

Coney Island Couple…flying hairpiece

Coney Island Couple is one of my favorite photographs, sold a few of these over the years. Coming across this couple was a great joy. They talked for what seemed hours, enjoying each others company and the beautiful summer day. I only shot two prints – never want to interfere with people’s privacy. The funny thing about this photograph was not the black umbrella, or how they were sitting…the funny thing that I found was – his hair piece was flying in the harsh beach wind.

Puddle Biker in New York City

Once again I find myself in Washington Square, New York City. Perfect day, just after a light rain, the fresh smell of the air, the sunlight beaming through the clouds. I caught this kid riding repeatedly through the steaming puddles. This print is just perfect, blew it up to very large size and framed with a simple black frame. Let me know your thought.